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Tutorial: Factor analysis revisited – An overview with the help of SPSS, SAS and R packages

Editor IJSMI


Numerous research articles and books published on Factor Analysis as it is widely applied in many of the disciplines such as Psychology & Behaviour sciences and marketing where more number of observed variables is used. Factor analysis is used to reduce the number of variables (which are correlated among them) by defining them into few factors which are linear combinations of the original variables. Factor Analysis also studies the underlying structure in the data set. Factor analysis [1,2] is introduced by Spearman a century ago[3, 2]. This paper provides an overview of Factor Analysis and how to conduct a Factor Analysis using SAS, SPSS and R statistical packages through a hypothetical data set.


Factor Analysis; Principal Component Analysis; Exploratory Factor Analysis; Confirmatory Factor Analysis; Method of Principal Component; Cattel’s method; Velicer’s method; Horn’s Parallel Analysis; Principal factor analysis; Canonical factor analysis; Alp

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3000/ijsmi.v3i1.6

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